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              Books by Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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              Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: Third Report
               

              Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: Third Report (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Research Council, National; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Board on Energy and Environmental Systems; Committee on Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 3

              • RRP: $223.99
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              The public-private partnership to develop vehicles that require less petroleum-based fuel and emit fewer greenhouse gases should continue to include fuel cells and other hydrogen technologies in its research and development portfolio. The third volume in the FreedomCAR series sta...tes that, although the partnership's recent shift of focus toward technologies that could be ready for use in the nearer term--such as advanced combustion engines and plug-in electric vehicles--is warranted, R&D on hydrogen and fuel cells is also needed given the high costs and challenges that many of the technologies must overcome before widespread use. The FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Fuel Partnership is a research collaboration among the U.S. Department of Energy, the United States Council for Automotive Research - whose members are the Detroit automakers--five major energy companies, and two electric utility companies. The partnership seeks to advance the technologies essential for components and infrastructure for a full range of affordable, clean, energy efficient cars and light trucks. Until recently, the program primarily focused on developing technologies that would allow U.S. automakers to make production and marketing decisions by 2015 on hydrogen fuel cell-powered vehicles. These vehicles have the potential to be much more energy-efficient than conventional gasoline-powered vehicles, produce no harmful tailpipe emissions, and significantly reduce petroleum use. In 2009, the partnership changed direction and stepped up efforts to advance, in the shorter term, technologies for reducing petroleum use in combustion engines, including those using biofuels, as well as batteries that could be used in plug-in hybrid-electric or all electric vehicles.
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              ISBN 9780309156837
              Released NZ 15 Dec 2010
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              Controlling Cost Growth of NASA Earth and Space Science Missions

              Controlling Cost Growth of NASA Earth and Space Science Missions (Paperback)

              By Committee on Cost Growth in NASA Earth and Space Science Missions; Studies Board, Space; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Research Council, National

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              Cost and schedule growth is a problem experienced by many types of projects in many fields of endeavor. Based on prior studies of cost growth in NASA and Department of Defense projects, this book identifies specific causes of cost growth associated with NASA Earth and space scien...ce missions and provides guidance on how NASA can overcome these specific problems. The recommendations in this book focus on changes in NASA policies that would directly reduce or eliminate the cost growth of Earth and space science missions. Large cost growth is a concern for Earth and space science missions, and it can be a concern for other missions as well. If the cost growth is large enough, it can create liquidity problems for NASA's Science Mission Directorate that in turn cause cost profile changes and development delays that amplify the overall cost growth for other concurrent and/or pending missions. Addressing cost growth through the allocation of artificially high reserves is an inefficient use of resources because it unnecessarily diminishes the portfolio of planned flights. The most efficient use of resources is to establish realistic budgets and reserves and effective management processes that maximize the likelihood that mission costs will not exceed reserves. NASA is already taking action to reduce cost growth; additional steps, as recommended herein, will help improve NASA's mission planning process and achieve the goal of ensuring frequent mission opportunities for NASA Earth and space science. --Publisher's description.
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              ISBN 9780309157377
              Released NZ 15 Oct 2010
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              Persistent Forecasting of Disruptive Technologies: Report 2

              Persistent Forecasting of Disruptive Technologies: Report 2 (Paperback)

              By Committee on Forecasting Future Disruptive Technologies; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Research Council, National

              • RRP: $33.99
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              Accompanying CD-ROM contains figures from chapter 2 and appendix F and transcripts from appendixes D and E.

              ISBN 9780309149044
              Released NZ 15 Jul 2010
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              Research at the Intersection of the Physical and Life Sciences
               

              Research at the Intersection of the Physical and Life Sciences (Paperback)

              By Research Council, National; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology; on Life Sciences, Board

              • RRP: $144.99
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              Traditionally, the natural sciences have been divided into two branches: the biological sciences and the physical sciences. Today, an increasing number of scientists are addressing problems lying at the intersection of the two. These problems are most often biological in nature, ...but examining them through the lens of the physical sciences can yield exciting results and opportunities. For example, one area producing effective cross-discipline research opportunities centers on the dynamics of systems. Equilibrium, multistability, and stochastic behavior--concepts familiar to physicists and chemists--are now being used to tackle issues associated with living systems such as adaptation, feedback, and emergent behavior. Research at the Intersection of the Physical and Life Sciences discusses how some of the most important scientific and societal challenges can be addressed, at least in part, by collaborative research that lies at the intersection of traditional disciplines, including biology, chemistry, and physics. This book describes how some of the mysteries of the biological world are being addressed using tools and techniques developed in the physical sciences, and identifies five areas of potentially transformative research. Work in these areas would have significant impact in both research and society at large by expanding our understanding of the physical world and by revealing new opportunities for advancing public health, technology, and stewardship of the environment. This book recommends several ways to accelerate such cross-discipline research. Many of these recommendations are directed toward those administering the faculties and resources of our great research institutions--and the stewards of our research funders, making this book an excellent resource for academic and research institutions, scientists, universities, and federal and private funding agencies. --Publisher's description.
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              ISBN 9780309147514
              Released NZ 15 Feb 2010
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              The Rise of Games and High Performance Computing for Modeling and Simulation

              The Rise of Games and High Performance Computing for Modeling and Simulation (Paperback)

              By Committee on Modeling, Simulation, and Games; Standing Committee on Technology Insight - Gauge, Evaluate, and Review; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Research Council, National

              • RRP: $51.99
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              The technical and cultural boundaries between modeling, simulation, and games are increasingly blurring, providing broader access to capabilities in modeling and simulation and further credibility to game-based applications. The purpose of this study is to provide a technical ass...essment of Modeling, Simulation, and Games (MS&G) research and development worldwide and to identify future applications of this technology and its potential impacts on government and society. Further, this study identifies feasible applications of gaming and simulation for military systems; associated vulnerabilities of, risks to, and impacts on critical defense capabilities; and other significant indicators and warnings that can help prevent or mitigate surprises related to technology applications by those with hostile intent. Finally, this book recommends priorities for future action by appropriate departments of the intelligence community, the Department of Defense research community, and other government entities. The Rise of Games and High Performance Computing for Modeling and Simulation will serve as a useful tutorial and reference document for this particular era in the evolution of MS&G. The book also highlights a number of rising capabilities facilitated by MS&G to watch for in the coming years. --Publisher's description.
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              ISBN 9780309147774
              Released NZ 15 Mar 2010
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              Experimentation and Rapid Prototyping in Support of Counterterrorism
               

              Experimentation and Rapid Prototyping in Support of Counterterrorism (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Research Council, National; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Committee on Experimentation and Rapid Prototyping in Support of Counterterrorism

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              The U.S. military forces currently face a nontraditional threat from insurgents and terrorists who primarily employ improvised explosive devices, and have shown a cycle of adaptation of less than 12 months to responses by U.S. forces to counter these attacks. This constantly evol...ving threat requires U.S. military forces to adapt and respond more rapidly with modified tactics, technologies, and/or equipment. In response to this need for new technologies, the Rapid Reaction Technology Office (RRTO) was established in 2006 to develop technologies that can mature in 6 to 18 months for purposes of counterterrorism. Although RRTO appears to be successfully fulfilling its mission, the agency seeks to understand and address barriers to and opportunities for meeting future counterterrorism needs--including the need to accelerate the transition of technologies for counterterrorism with an eye to countering emerging and anticipated threats. This book reviews RRTO approaches and provides a set of recommendations for potential improvements to help meet these needs for rapid technology development --Publisher's description.
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              ISBN 9780309136686
              Released NZ 15 Nov 2009
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              Toward Better Usability, Security, and Privacy of Information Technology: Report of a Workshop

              Toward Better Usability, Security, and Privacy of Information Technology: Report of a Workshop (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Steering Committee on the Usability, Security, and Privacy of Computer Systems; Computer Science and Telecommunications Board; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Research Council, National

              • RRP: $32.99
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              Despite many advances, security and privacy often remain too complex for individuals or enterprises to manage effectively or to use conveniently. Security is hard for users, administrators, and developers to understand, making it all too easy to use, configure, or operate systems... in ways that are inadvertently insecure. Moreover, security and privacy technologies originally were developed in a context in which system administrators had primary responsibility for security and privacy protections and in which the users tended to be sophisticated. Today, the user base is much wider--including the vast majority of employees in many organizations and a large fraction of households--but the basic models for security and privacy are essentially unchanged. Security features can be clumsy and awkward to use and can present significant obstacles to getting work done. As a result, cybersecurity measures are all too often disabled or bypassed by the users they are intended to protect. Similarly, when security gets in the way of functionality, designers and administrators deemphasize it. The result is that end users often engage in actions, knowingly or unknowingly, that compromise the security of computer systems or contribute to the unwanted release of personal or other confidential information. Toward Better Usability, Security, and Privacy of Information Technology discusses computer system security and privacy, their relationship to usability, and research at their intersection. --Publisher's description.
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              ISBN 9780309160902
              Released NZ 15 Oct 2010
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              Views of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2012
               

              Views of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2012 (Paperback)

              By Research Council, National; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Board on Physics and Astronomy; on Radio Frequencies, Committee; Committee on the Views of the NAS and NAE on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2012

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              The passive, receive-only Radio Astronomy Service (RAS) and the Earth Exploration-Satellite Service (EESS) provide otherwise impossible scientific observations of the Universe and Earth through the use of advanced receiver technology with extreme sensitivity and the employment of... complex noise reduction algorithms. Even with such technology, RAS and EESS are quite adversely affected by what most active services would consider low noise levels. To ensure their ability to use the radio spectrum for scientific purposes, scientists must be party to the discussion in the lead-up to the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC), which will next be held in January and February 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland. By request of the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Research Council was convened to provide guidance to the U.S. spectrum managers and policymakers as they prepare for the WRC in order to protect the scientific exploration of the Earth and Universe using the radio spectrum. While the resulting document is targeted at U.S. agencies, representatives of foreign governments and foreign scientific users will find its contents useful as they plan their own WRC positions.
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              ISBN 9780309161053
              Released NZ 15 Dec 2012
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              An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory: Fiscal Year 2010
               

              An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory: Fiscal Year 2010 (Paperback)

              By Research Council, National; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Assessments Board, Laboratory; on Manufacturing Engineering, Panel

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              The mission of the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory (MEL) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to promote innovation and the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturing through measurement science, measurement services, and critical technical contribution...s to standards. The MEL is organized in five divisions: Intelligent Systems, Manufacturing Metrology, Manufacturing Systems Integration, Precision Engineering, and Fabrication Technology. A panel of experts appointed by the National Research Council (NRC) assessed the first four divisions.
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              ISBN 9780309161619
              Released NZ 15 Oct 2010
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              Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy
               

              Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy (Paperback)

              By Research Council, National; Policy and Global Affairs; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Computer Science and Telecommunications Board; Committee on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy

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              Commissioned papers were discussed at a public workshop held June 10-11, 2010, in Washington, D.C., and authors revised their papers after the workshop. --Publisher's website.

              ISBN 9780309160353
              Released NZ 15 Sep 2010
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