
Edited by Fritzsch, Harald

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In February 2016, physicists announced the breakthrough discovery of the gravitational waves, which were predicted by Albert Einstein in his centuryold theory of General Relativity. These gravitational waves were emitted as a result of the collision of two massive black holes th...at happened about 1.3 billion years ago. They were discovered at the Laser Interferometer GravitationalWave Observatory (LIGO) in the United States and thus marked a new milestone for physics. However, it remains unclear to physicists how the gravitational interaction can be included in the Standard Theory of particle physics which describes the electroweak and the strong interactions in our universe. In this volume are the lectures, given by the speakers at the conference on cosmology and particle physics. The discussed topics range from gravitational waves to cosmology, dark matter, dark energy and particle physics beyond the Standard Theory. Read more


The speed of light, the fine structure constant, and Newton's constant of gravity  these are just three among the many physical constants that define our picture of the world. Where do they come from? Are they constant in time and across space? In this book, physicist and author... Harald Fritzsch invites the reader to explore the mystery of the fundamental constants of physics in the company of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and a modernday physicist. The conversation that the three scientists are imagined to have provides an entertaining introduction to the constants and covers topics ranging from atomic, nuclear, and particle physics to astrophysics and cosmology. Read more


The matter in our universe is composed of electrons and quarks. The dynamics of electrons and quarks is described by the Standard Model of particle physics, which is based on quantum field theories. The general framework of quantum field theories is described in this book. After ...the classical mechanics and the relativistic mechanics the details of classical scalar fields, of electrodynamics and of quantum mechanics are discussed. Then the quantization of scalar fields, of spinor fields and of vector fields is described.The basic interactions are described by gauge theories. These theories are discussed in detail, in particular the gauge theories of quantum electrodynamics (QED) and of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), based on the gauge group SU(3). In both theories the gauge bosons, the photon and the gluons, have no mass. The gauge theory of the electroweak interactions, based on the gauge group SU(2) x U(1), describes both the electromagnetic and the weak interactions. The weak force is generated by the exchange of the weak bosons. They have a large mass, and one believes that these masses are generated by a spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry.It might be that the strong and the electroweak interactions are unified at very high energies ('Grand Unification'). The gauge groups SU(3) and SU(2) x U(1) must be subgroups of a big gauge group, describing the Grand Unification. Two such theories are discussed, based on the gauge groups SU(5) and SO(10). Read more


The speed of light, the fine structure constant, and Newton's constant of gravity  these are just three among the many physical constants that define our picture of the world. Where do they come from? Are they constant in time and across space? In this book, physicist and author... Harald Fritzsch invites the reader to explore the mystery of the fundamental constants of physics in the company of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and a modernday physicist. The conversation that the three scientists are imagined to have provides an entertaining introduction to the constants and covers topics ranging from atomic, nuclear, and particle physics to astrophysics and cosmology. Read more


Today it is known that the atomic nuclei are composed of smaller constituents, the quarks. A quark is always bound with two other quarks, forming a baryon or with an antiquark, forming a meson.


Edited by Fritzsch, Harald

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The Standard Theory of Particle Physics describes successfully the observed strong and electroweak interactions, but it is not a final theory of physics, since many aspects are not understood: (1) How can gravity be introduced in the Standard Theory? (2) How can we understand the... observed masses of the leptons and quarks as well as the flavor mixing angles? (3) Why are the masses of the neutrinos much smaller than the masses of the charged leptons? (4) Is the new boson, discovered at CERN, the Higgs boson of the Standard Theory or an excited weak boson? (5) Are there new symmetries at very high energy, e.g. a broken supersymmetry? (6) Are the leptons and quarks pointlike or composite particles? (7) Are the leptons and quarks at very small distances onedimensional objects, e.g. superstrings? This proceedings volume comprises papers written by the invited speakers discussing the many important issues of the new physics to be discovered at the Large Hadron Collider. Read more


Werner Heisenberg and Richard Feynman find quantum physics fascinating and necessary for understanding the atoms. Albert Einstein dislikes it and Isaac Newton does not understand it, which is not surprising. In this title, this is the scenario for animated discussions between fiv...e people. Read more


Murray GellMann is one of the leading physicists in the world. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1969 for his work on the SU(3) symmetry. This book features a collection of his works.


Murray GellMann is one of the leading physicists of the world. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1969 for his work on the classification and symmetries of elementary particles, including the approximate SU(3) symmetry of hadrons. His list of publications is impressive...; a number of his papers have become landmarks in physics. In 1953, GellMann introduced the strangeness quantum number, conserved by the strong and electromagnetic interactions but not by the weak interaction. In 1954 he and F E Low proposed what was later called the renormalization group. In 1958 he and R P Feynman wrote an important article on the VA theory of the weak interaction. In 1961 and 1962 he described his ideas about the SU(3) symmetry of hadrons and its violation, leading to the prediction of the O particle. In 1964 he proposed the quark picture of hadrons. In 1971 he and H Fritzsch proposed the exactly conserved color quantum number and in 1972 they discussed what they later called quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the gauge theory of color. These major publications and many others are collected in this volume, providing physicists with easy access to much of GellMann's work. Some of the articles are concerned with his recollections of the history of elementary particle physics in the third quarter of the twentieth century. Read more


Edited by Fritzsch, Harald

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Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations neutrino physics has become an interesting field of research in physics. They imply that neutrino must have a small mass and that the neutrinos, coupled to the charged leptons, are mixtures of the mass eigenstates, analogous to the fla...vor mixing of the quarks. The mixing angles for the quarks are small, but for the leptons two of the mixing angles are large. The masses of the three neutrinos must be very small, less than 1 eV, but from the oscillation experiments we only know the mass differences  the absolute masses are still unknown. Also we do not know, if the masses of the neutrinos are Dirac masses, as the masses of the charged leptons and of the quarks, or whether they are Majorana masses.In this volume, an overview of the present state of research in neutrino physics is given by wellknown experimentalists and theorists. The contents  originated from talks and discussions at a recent conference addressing some of the most pressing open questions in neutrino physics  range from the oscillation experiments to CPviolation for leptons, to texture zero mass matrices and to the role of neutrinos in astrophysics and cosmology. Read more
