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              Books of Enoch Collection
                

              Books of Enoch Collection (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Scriptural Research Institute

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              The five books of Enoch are a collection of books written in Semitic languages, and often grouped together as the 'Book of Enoch, ' or '1st Enoch.' The books were likely written at different points in time and different Semitic languages. The first book was the Book of the Watche...rs, which is generally considered to be the oldest book in the collection, however, the age of the book is debated. The book is now known to have originated long before Christianity since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, however, was lost for well over a thousand years to Europeans, and assumed to be a Christian-era work when the Europeans rediscovered it in Ethiopia. The five books of Enoch only survive in Ge'ez, the classical language of Ethiopia, however, do not survive intact, and some sections of text do not survive.The Ge'ez texts are believed to be translations from a Greek source, which was itself a translation of an Aramaic source. Many fragments of the Aramaic texts were discovered among the Dead Sea scrolls, as well as Hebrew and Greek fragments. The Aramaic texts are mostly the same as the Ge'ez texts, however, scroll 4Q209 also includes a section of text from 3rd Book of Enoch, the Astronomical Book, which is lost from the Ge'ez copies. A few fragments of Greek translations have been found in Egypt in the past two centuries, which generally match the Ge'ez translation. A small fragment of a Latin translation was also preserved by the Vatican through the centuries, which also matches the Ge'ez copies for a small fragment of 4th Book of Enoch, Dream Visions
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              ISBN 9781989852248
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              Words of Ahikar
                

              Words of Ahikar (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Scriptural Research Institute

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              The Words of Ahikar is the oldest surviving Israelite story, with known copies in Aramaic dating back to the 5th-century BC. As it has been translated into many languages over the past two and a half millennia, it now has several names and translations, including the Words of Ahi...qar, the Story of Ahikar, and various variations of the name, including Achiacharos, from the Greek translation, Ahyqr from the Aramaic translation, Akyrios from the Old Slavonic translation, Hayqar from the Arabic translation, and Xikar from the Armenian translation. This translation uses the most common English variation of Ahikar, which is based on a transliteration of the oldest surviving Aramaic version of the name. The oldest fragments of this book found to date, were discovered in Elephantine, Egypt, and date to the 5th-century BC, making it a couple of centuries older than the oldest of the Dead Sea Scrolls. While the story is set during the Assyrian Captivity of the Samaritans during the 7th century BC, it is generally accepted by scholars that the book was written in its current form in the 6th century BC, during the Babylonian Captivity of the Judahites. The primary reason for this dating is the repeated referenced to Bola, which is generally accepted as a reference to the Neo-Babylonian god of the 6th century BC named Belu, more commonly called Bel in English based on his appearance in the Septuagint's Book of Daniel, where he was called Bel ( ). This book also repeatedly refers to the Highest God, El Elyon, the ancient Canaanite and Israelite god from the Torah, however, does not mention Yahw, and therefore does not appear to have been written by a Judahite. As Tobit claimed to be Ahikar's uncle, and a Naphtalite captive in Assyria, this indicates that Ahikar was viewed as being a Samaritan, and not a Judahite at the time that Tobit was written. The Words of Ahikar is not considered to be a true historical story by any modern academics or theologians. It is universally considere
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              ISBN 9781990289668
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              Memories of the New Kingdom Collection
                

              Memories of the New Kingdom Collection (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Scriptural Research Institute

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              The New Kingdom era of Egyptian history emerged from the darkness of the Second Intermediate Period, when the Theban dynasty drove out the Hyksos from Egypt, and went on the conquer Canaan, and Nubia. The Hyksos dynasty appears to have been largely as a result of the Minoan erupt...ion in Greece, which darkened the sky of Egypt and blanketed northern Egypt with up to 2 meters (6 feet) in ash. The Tempest Stele from Karnak described the effects of the storm reaching all the way to southern Egypt during the era of Ahmose I, the Pharaoh that ultimately drove the Hyksos from Egypt.This period of destruction was shortly before Ahmose I launched his successful invasion of Northern Egypt and captured the Hyksos capital of Avaris. The Autobiography of Ahmose Pen-Ebana covers many of the early battles that forged the Egyptian New Kingdom, including the Battle of Avaris, and the subsequent Battle of Sharuhen a few years later, which resulted in Egypt taking control over the entire former Hyksos dominion. Ahmose Pen-Ebana is often described as an Egyptian Admiral, however, his career in the Egyptian navy encompassed decades under the service of a series of Pharaohs, including Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, and Thutmose I, spanning more than 50 years from circa 1550 to the 1490s BC. As he described himself as a youth at the Battle of Avaris, where he served as his father's replacement in the fleet, it is likely that he did not retire until he was over 60. He listed extensive campaigns throughout his life, mostly in northern Sudan along the Nile and Yellow Nile, before the pharaoh turned his attention to the north, and sent them to occupy Syria.The herald Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet's biography covers much of the same era, however, his viewpoint was that of a pharaoh's herald instead of a soldier, therefore, he only mentions the battles that the pharaoh was present at. The first battle that Pen-Nekhbet partook in was the battle in Djahy under Amenhotep I, which may have been the Battle of Sharuhen,
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              ISBN 9781990289279
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              Septuagint: Maccabees
                

              Septuagint: Maccabees (Trade Paperback / Paperback, Abridged edition)

              By Scriptural Research Institute

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              Four books of Maccabees were ultimately added to the Septuagint, three in the 1st-century BC, and the 4th as an appendix in the 1st-century AD. No trace of these books have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, and they are generally thought to have been written in Greek. 1st an...d 2nd Maccabees do include several Aramaic loanwords that support an Aramaic source text. A different book of Maccabees has survived in the Arabic language, either called Arabic Maccabees, or 5th Maccabees. Three additional books of Maccabees have survived in the Ge'ez language in Ethiopia and are generally considered translations from either Syriac or Arabian sources. Additionally, several books of Maccabees are known to exist in Syriac, which are not the same as any of the above versions of Maccabees. One Yiddish book of the Maccabee surfaced in Europe during the Middle Ages which appears to have been translated from an Aramaic or Hebrew source. 1st Maccabees tells the story of the Maccabean Revolt against the rule of the Seleucid Empire in the 2nd-century BC. The content of 1st Maccabees appears to be a Sadducee text, as it clearly gives all credit to the self-declared high-priests that led the rebellion against the Greeks, and barely mentioned the sky-god Shamayim, or the earth-goddess Eretz. It also omits the names of the other gods that 2nd Maccabees and 3rd Maccabees mentions the Judeans worshiping, such as Dionysus, which supports its authorship in the Hasmonean Dynasty, when the other gods were no longer tolerated. 2nd Maccabees claims to be an abridged version of Jason of Cyrene's now lost five-volume version of Maccabees. Jason's books of the Maccabees were likely composed earlier than 1st Maccabees, as the story ends decades earlier, and contains many references to Sabaoth, translated into Greek as Dionysus, which are missing from the 1st Maccabees. While 1st Maccabees is a very secular version of the events that led to the creation of the Hasmonean kingdom, and was, therefore, a
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              ISBN 9781990289200
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              Septuagint: Genesis
                

              Septuagint: Genesis (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Scriptural Research Institute

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              In the mid-3rd century BC, King Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt ordered a translation of the ancient Israelite scriptures for the Library of Alexandria, which resulted in the creation of the Septuagint. The original version, published circa 250 BC, only included the Torah, or in... Greek terms, the Pentateuch. The Torah is composed of the five books traditionally credited to Moses, circa 1500 BC: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. In 140 BC, the Hasmonean Dynasty of the Kingdom of Judea adopted the Hebrew language for religious texts, however, Aramaic continued to be the primary language used by the Judean people. Records from the time, including the Letter of Aristeas, report the Septuagint was translated from Aramaic source texts, which were likely the same sources the Hebrew translators used a century later. The primary reason for the adoption of the Hebrew language by the Hasmoneans appears to have been to force everyone to update their scriptures, as the Hasmoneans supported a group of scribes in Jerusalem, whose task was to update the scriptures that the Judeans brought to them. The earliest Christians, in the 1st Century AD, along with the major Jewish minds of the time, all considered the Greek translation equal to, or preferable to, the Hebrew translation by Simon the Zealot. Nevertheless, the Hebrew translation was adopted by Rabinnical Jews after the Romans destroyed the Second Temple, and was subsequently adopted by the Catholic Church during the medieval period, and inherited by the Protestant Churches during the reformation. This translation attempts to restore and translate the original Septuagint's book of Genesis as it would have appeared circa 250 BC.
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              ISBN 9781989852866
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              Septuagint: Torah
                

              Septuagint: Torah (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Scriptural Research Institute

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              After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, his generals ripped apart his empire, and by 305 BC General Ptolemy had gained control of the Eastern Mediterranean, including Egypt, Judea, Cyprus, Cyrene, and coastal regions of modern Turkey. He established the dynasty of the P...tolemies that would rule Egypt for the next three centuries. The Ptolemys built one of the great wonders of the ancient world, the Library of Alexandria, which at its height was said to house over 400,000 scrolls. The original collection that was amassed in the first century of the library, was largely Greek works, and translations of Egyptian works, however in the mid-3rd century BC, King Ptolemy II Philadelphus ordered a translation of the ancient Israelite scriptures for the library. A number of scholars were assembled, either 70 or 72 depending on the version of the story, and representing every Israelite sect. They created a translation that was later known as the Septuagint. The original version, published circa 250 BC, only included the Torah, or in Greek terms, the Pentateuch, or five books traditionally credited to Moses, circa 1500 BC: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. This translation attempts to restore and translate the original Septuagint's Torah as it would have appeared circa 250 BC.
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              ISBN 9781990289347
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              Ugaritic Texts: Ba'al Cycle
                

              Ugaritic Texts: Ba'al Cycle (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Scriptural Research Institute

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              The Ba'al Cycle, or Ba'al Saga, is a collection of stories about Ba'al Hadad, the supreme god of the Canaanite pantheon in the late bronze age. The Ugaritic Texts are ancient tablets that were recovered from archaeological digs at the ruins of Ugarit, a bronze-age city in northwe...st Syria, at the foot of the mountain Jebel Aqra on the modern Syrian-Turkish border. The Ba'al Cycle is generally divided into several sections, based on the groupings of the tablets that were discovered, however, this series of translations is divided into just two sections, Victorious Ba'al, and Ba'al Defeats Mot. These divisions are always subjective. Some translators divide the central section regarding the building of Ba'al's Temple on Mount Zaphon from the preceding battle with Yam. Others also separate out the intermediate section involving Ba'al's discussion with Anat, however, this series is divided based on the apparent shift in source material between the early section and the later section. The earliest section appears to be a translation from ancient Egyptian and includes Egyptian loanwords, as well as numerous references to the houses of the gods, which seems to be a reference to the system of decans used in Egypt from the Old Kingdom onward, to tell time at night. The main section of Ba'al Defeats Mot, appears to have been translated from an old Akkadian text that retold a Hurrian and Hattic story about two gods descending into the underworld. Many Akkadian, Hattic, and Hurrian loanwords are found in the later section, which are mostly missing from the earlier section, as well as the conclusion. The major exception being the messenger Ugar, who was a Hurrian psychopomp, like the Canaanite Horon, and Greek Charon. As the city of Ugarit was named after him, this name clearly predates the text itself, and so it cannot be used to date the text. Nevertheless, does indicate that the city was originally a Hurrian settlement before becoming Semitic, which helps to explain why the old
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              ISBN 9781990289149
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              Enoch and Metatron Collection
               

              Enoch and Metatron Collection (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Scriptural Research Institute

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              The five books of Enoch are a collection of books written in Semitic languages, and often grouped together as the 'Book of Enoch, ' or '1st Enoch.' The books were likely written at different points in time and different Semitic languages. The first book was the Book of the Watche...rs, which is generally considered to be the oldest book in the collection, however, the age of the book is debated. The book is now known to have originated long before Christianity since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, however, was lost for well over a thousand years to Europeans, and assumed to be a Christian-era work when the Europeans rediscovered it in Ethiopia. The five books of Enoch only survive in Ge'ez, the classical language of Ethiopia, however, do not survive intact, and some sections of text do not survive.Other books attributed to Enoch, including the Secrets of Enoch, which is also called the 2nd Book of Enoch, however, is not the same text as the Semitic 2nd Book of Enoch. The Secrets of Enoch has only survived in the Old Slavonic language in the Balkan Peninsula and may be a partial paraphrase of the Book of the Watchers. Another text attributed to Enoch is the Revelation of Metatron, also called the Revelation of Metatron, Book of the Palaces, Book of Rabbi Ishmael the High Priest, or the 3rd Book of Enoch, however, is not the same text as the Ethiopian 3rd Book of Enoch, or any section of the Semitic books of Enoch. The Revelation of Metatron is written as a sequel to the first five books of Enoch and is written from the perspective of Enoch in the sky, where his angelic name was Metatron. The Revelation of Metatron appears to have been written in Hebrew but includes several Greek and Latin words that have led scholars to assume the text is a Jewish text written in the Christian era.The Revelation of Metatron is a medieval Jewish work, that claims to have been written in the late-2nd century AD by Rabbi Ishmael 'the High Priest.' It is known by various names, inclu
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              ISBN 9781989852293
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              Septuagint: Judges & Ruth
                

              Septuagint: Judges & Ruth (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Scriptural Research Institute

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              The Book of Judges does not reference Lord Sabaoth or Yahweh Sabaoth in either the Septuagint or the Masoretic Texts, however, the name Yahweh is found throughout the Masoretic version of Judges. The Lord Sabaoth of Joshua is referred to as the 'major-general' of the Lord, implyi...ng an angelic being of some kind. He appeared at Jericho before Joshua's forces destroyed the city, and is therefore implicated in the destruction of the cities walls, which archaeologists have dated to around 1500 BC, when Joshua's forced invaded Samaria according to the chronology of the Septuagint. In the later book of the prophet Zachariah, Lord Sabaoth is the name of a messenger, which appears to be related to Malakbel in the Book of Judges. The name Sabaoth appears to have been crudely added to Joshua at some point long before the Greeks translated the book circa 225 BC, likely during Ezra's redaction of the Samaritan scriptures circa 450 BC. By Ezra's time, Iaw was the name of the Jewish god, however, the Samaritans appear to have reverted to the worship of El, called Adon Elohim and El Shaddai by that time. As Ezra would not have added any texts about Iaw being a messenger, the source of these texts must be far older than Ezra. The Septuagint uses the strange term which translates as 'messenger lord, ' and is the translation of the Aramaic name Malakbel, the messenger and sun-god of the Aramaic trinity.The Book of Judges also includes many other gods, which the ancient Israelites are repeatedly accused of worshiping, including Ba'al, Asherah, and the Lords (Baalim) and Ashteroths of the Canaanites. Several of the Canaanite gods are mentioned incidentally, such as the fertility god Lord Lahem, the god of dusk Lord Shalim, the solar-god Lord Shemesh, and the grain-god Dagon. All these gods are part of the old Canaanite religion, in which El (Lord God) his wife Asherah (commonly called Qetesh) were the parents of the Canaanite gods. The term ba'al translates as lord, however, when used
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              ISBN 9781989852927
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              Apocalypses of Ezra Collection
                

              Apocalypses of Ezra Collection (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Scriptural Research Institute

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              In the early centuries of the Christian era, several texts called the Apocalypse of Ezra were in circulation among Jews and Christians. The original is believed to have been written in Hebrew, Aramaic, or Syriac, and is commonly known as the Jewish Apocalypse of Ezra. This versio...n was translated into Greek sometime before 200 AD and circulated widely within the early Christian churches. This book claimed that the prophet Ezra wrote 240 books, and its popularity seems to have inspired several 'Christian' Apocalypses of Ezra, presumably beginning with the 'Latin' Apocalypse of Ezra which claimed to be the second book of the prophet Ezra. This prophet Ezra is not the scribe Ezra from the Jewish scriptures, but a prophet named Ezra that lived several decades earlier.The Jewish Apocalypse of Ezra was adopted under a variety of names into the Bibles of most older churches before the Protestant reformation. In the 4th-century it was called 3rd Esdras by Archbishop Ambrose (Aurelius Ambrosius) of Milan, which continues to be its name Orthodox Bibles. Catholics call it 4th Esdras, while Protestants call it 2nd Esdras. The Ethiopian version uses another name: Ezra Sutuel, which is derived from the fact that the text claims to have been written by 'Sutuel, who am also called Ezra.' Sutuel is the Ethiopian translation of Shealtiel, the name of one of King Jehoiachin's sons. Jehoiachin the second last king of Judah before it was conquered by the Babylonians, and was considered the first 'King of the Exiles' in Babylon. His son Shealtiel was the second 'King of the Exiles, ' as this does correlate with the time recorded in the Jewish Apocalypse of Ezra, meaning, that if Ezra was not Shealtiel, he would have at least known him well, as Ezra is described as being the leader of the community of Babylon.There is no consensus of when the Latin Apocalypse of Ezra was written, however, it is a Christian era Apocalyse, that is clearly anti-Jewish in nature. The Apocalyse's claim to being
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              ISBN 9781989852699
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